Below are 3 Great Studies that will give you some information to stay on the right track.
Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Common Fruits
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease andcancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 ± 4.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG2human liver-cancercells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC50 of 14.5 ± 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Keywords: Phytochemicals; phenolics; cancer; antioxidant; antiproliferation; fruits
Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Common Vegetables
Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in thesevegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.
Keywords: Cancer; phytochemicals; phenolics; antioxidant; antiproliferation; vegetables
Antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of common vegetables: A comparative study
Epidemiological studies have consistently linked abundant consumption of fruits and vegetables to a reduction of the risk of developing several types of cancer. In most cases, however, the identification of specific fruits and vegetables that are responsible for these effects is still lacking, retarding the implementation of effective dietary-based chemopreventive approaches. As a first step towards the identification of foods endowed with the most potent chemopreventive activities, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of extracts isolated from 34 vegetables on the proliferation of 8 different tumour cell lines. The extracts from cruciferous vegetables as well as those from vegetables of the genus Allium inhibited the proliferation of all tested cancercell lines whereas extracts from vegetables most commonly consumed in Western countries were much less effective. The antiproliferative effect ofvegetables was specific to cells of cancerous origin and was found to be largely independent of their antioxidant properties. These results thus indicate that vegetables have very different inhibitory activities towards cancer cells and that the inclusion of cruciferous and Allium vegetables in the diet is essential for effective dietary-based chemopreventive strategies.
Keywords: Cancer prevention; Cruciferous vegetables; Allium vegetables; Antioxidants
Abbreviations: ORAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity